The state of matter dramatically varies with external temperature. For example, water (liquid phase) changes into ice (solid phase) with cooling. Such a phase change is known as the phase transition. Here, water and ice coexist only at 0 degrees centigrade. At the higher temperatures, the liquid phase is realized. On the other hand, at the lower temperatures, the solid phase emerges. The temperature of 0 degrees centigrade is thus the boundary between liquid and solid phases, known as the phase transition temperature.
The research group of Nagoya University (Assist. Prof. Ryuji Okazaki and Prof. Ichiro Terasaki in the laboratory of condensed matter physics of functional materials), in collaborations with Dr. Yuka Ikemoto and Dr. Taro Moriwaki in Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Prof. Mori’s group in The University of Tokyo, and Prof. Sasaki’s group in Tohoku University, has found that two different electronic states spatially coexist in an organic molecular conductor in a broad temperature range from the phase transition temperature of -200 degrees centigrade nearly to the absolute zero temperature (around -273 degrees centigrade ).
This is highly anomalous behavior because a spatially-homogeneous state is usually realized below the phase transition temperature. Such an inhomogeneous state can be sensitively changed by the external field, such as electric field, leading to a possible organic nonlinear device using the inhomogeneous state.
More information (Japanese)：http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press_20131118_01.pdf[PDF:438KB]
A research group headed by Professor Akihiko Chiba of the Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University has discovered, through experiments into cobalt–chromium alloys for medical implant devices such as artificial hip joints, that 3D metal printers can be used to control the orientation of periodic arrangement of atoms (i.e. crystalline structures). This discovery will accelerate the realization of domestic custom-made artificial joints, as well as having a significant impact on the development of 3D printed metal products, such as jet engine turbine blades.
More information (Japanese)：http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press_20131108_01.pdf[PDF:131KB]
Dr. Wugen Pan et al. of the Institute for Materials
Research at Tohoku University has developed a new method to evaluate
quality of Si crystal substrates for solar cells. The energy
conversion efficiency of Si solar cells is highly dependent on the
heterogeneity, as in the distribution of any defects or impurities, of
the Si crystal substrates. Until now, there were no measurement methods
to evaluate the eterogeneity of the substrate and utilize the results
to predict its suitability as solar cells. This newly developed
evaluation method is unprecedented in measuring the heterogeneity
present in the Si crystal substrate and capable of determining its
suitability without actually producing the solar cell itself.
method can also be used, not only in evaluating the substrates, but can
also be used to evaluate the quality of the solar cell manufacturing
technology. This technology will contribute toward new developments in
in the solar cell industry, reducing costs and increasing efficiency of
next generation silicon solar cells.
The research results are scheduled
for publication in the scientific journal Applied Physics Letters 103,
More information (Japanese)：http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press_20130726_02.pdf[PDF:359KB]
A research group consisting of Meisho Kiko Co. Ltd. located in Hyogo Prefecture, Special Researcher Nobuyuki Nishiyama of the Sokeizai Center, and Associate Professor Hidemi Kato of the Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University, commissioned by the Strategic Foundational Technology Improvement Support Operation program of the Tohoku Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry, developed a thermal imprinting device employing a rapid and localized heating method through laser irradiation, establishing a technology that allows for rapid and low cost mass production of large-area nanopatterns. The developments are expected to contribute significantly to the commercialization of nanopatterns in a wide range of cutting-edge industrial uses such as IT equipment, medical devices, and catalysts.
More information (Japanese)：http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press_20130624_01.pdf[PDF:514KB]
A team led by Prof. Masatomo Yashima of Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan) and Prof. John A. Kilner of Imperial College London (UK) has successfully visualized the oxygen diffusion pathway in an excellent oxide-ion and electronic mixed conductor, layered perovskite-type cobaltite PrBaCo2O5+δ. The present work demonstrates a new concept in the material design for high oxide-ion conduction and this can lead to the development of new ionic conductors for better solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen concentrators. The results were published in an international journal, Chem. Mater. Vol. 25, pp.2638-2641 (2013).
The experiments were performed using the neutron powder diffractometer, HERMES, of Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Instrument Scientist of HERMES: Associate Professor Kenji Ohoyama) installed at the nuclear research reactor JRR-3 in Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
More information (Japanese)：http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press_20130625_01.pdf[PDF:1.24MB]
Assistant Professor Kazuya Ando Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University (presently Lecturer at the Faculty of Science and Technology at Keio University) and Professor Eiji Saitoh, Advanced Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University has found that within the widely used electro-conductive plastic, the flow of the magnetism called the "spin current" can be converted into electrical signals and has successfully created a plastic magnetic-electrical conversion device.
More information (Japanese)：http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press_20130425_02.pdf [PDF:795KB]
The research group comprised of Professor Koki Takanashi, Assistant Professor Takeshi Seki of the Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University, Associate Professor Yukio Nozaki of Faculty of Science and Technology at Keio University, and Research Team Leader Hiroshi Imamura of Spintronics Research Center of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) succeeded in extremely low field magnetization switching with the use of waves of magnetic moments, spin waves, produced in the magnetic structures consisting of two different magnets which were laminated in the nanometer scale (nano=1 part per billion). They successfully switched the magnetization at the magnetic field with the magnitude of one tenth of that for the conventional technique.
More information (Japanese)：http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press_20130415_02.pdf [PDF:555KB]
A research group from the Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University, in collaboration with the Advanced Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University and the Quantum Beam Science Directorate of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, elucidated the formation process of perovskite-type hydrides using the high-resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction at SPring-8 for the first time in the world. While the hydrides have been anticipated to serve as a variety of functional materials, there are a few reports on their synthesis. A new insight obtained in this study will accelerate the development of energy materials with functionalities, such as hydrogen storage and superconductivity.
More information (Japanese)：http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press_20130307_02.pdf [PDF:522KB]
A group led by Professor Koki Takanashi and Assistant Professor Yuya Sakuraba of the Institute for Materials Research, with cooperation from a group led by Professor Terunobu Miyazaki and Associate Professor Shigemi Mizukami of the Advanced Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University devised a new thermoelectric power generation technology utilizing the phenomenon called the anomalous Nernst effect which occurs in magnetic materials such as metals and semiconductors and succeeded in increasing electric voltage in an experimental thermopile.
More information (Japanese)： http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press_20130228_01.pdf [PDF:805KB]
The research group led by Prof. Ichiro Yonenaga and his colleague Dr. Kentaro Kutsukake of Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University (Japan), has invented a novel growth method for crystalline silicons for solar cell applications and realized a quasi-monocrystalline silicon, so called mono-like Si, ingot without multi-crystallization. While approximately 50% of substrate for solar cells is currently based on multicrystalline silicon, mono-like Si is promising as a material capable of additionally increasing the conversion efficiency of the solar cells, of which research and development has accelerate worldwide. However, mono-like Si faces a problem of "multi-crystallization" that is an increase in occupying portion of several grains nucleated at crucible side walls with different orientation from that of the seed, in the growth process of a quasi-mono crystal from silicon melt. In order to solve this problem, we have devised a method suppressing such enlargement of the grains by utilizing functions of grain boundaries artificially induced by specific composed seed.
More information (Japanese) : http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/japanese/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press20130130_01.pdf [PDF:529KB]
Tohoku University and Hard Industry (President Takuichi Yamagata, Hachinohe City, Aomori Pref.) developed a new atomisation process using a high-velocity air fuel flame; collaborative research with Iwate University also investigated adequate stabilization of the flame by optimisation of the combustion conditions. We successfully realized the new atomisation process.
The result was published in ”Powder Injection Moulding”, which is professional journal of UK.
More information : http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/english/newimg/pressimg/tohokuuniv-press20130125_01e.pdf [PDF:445KB]
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is with close to half a million members in more than 160 countries the world's largest professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence. IEEE Distinguished Lecturers (DLs) are science and engineering professionals who help lead their fields in new developments that shape the global community by lecturing at institutes and conferences all over the world.
Koki Takanashi has recently been selected as one of four 2013 IEEE Magnetics Society Distinguished Lecturers, who was chosen on the basis of international reputation for excellence in the research fields of magnetic materials and spintronics, speaking acumen, and the wide-spread interest within the magnetics community for his previous research achievements. He will lecture on "Advanced spintronic materials for generation and control of spin current". The topics of the lecture can be found in